Bio-Char: What is it and why is it important?

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Who can benefit from Bio-Char?

Forest Gardens, Urban Gardens, Bio-Intensive Gardens, Orchards, Dairy Farms and many more – all can benefit from more carbon in their soil!!

In the current state our planet we are losing approx. 9 kg of top soil for every 1 kg of vegetables in the supermarket! Drought is a concept we hear about too often in NZ (and not because of less rain, but because of the lack of carbon that we have created in the soil)! Our water ways are being polluted with the chemical fertilisers that we are needing to pour more and more of (again, because of the lack of carbon to hold the minerals in the soil)!

In this state, every action that has anything to do with the soil – has to be incorporated with increasing the carbon!

Bio-Char is one of the key techniques that now many around the world are researching and experimenting with, although it is not new!

It seems that people, for many thousands of years, have been using Bio-Char as one of the key elements in creating the ‘Terra Preta’ or ‘Black Earth’ found in the Amazon basin, and made it to be as fertile as we can find it today.

A simplified explanation:

On our miraculous planet, exists a fine equilibrium between organisms that are in the process of photosynthesis and use the energy of the sun in order to convert CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) from the air, to oxygen (O2) that is released back to the air, and carbon that is incorporated into their bodies or passed on to the soil in various ways – these are most plants.

On the other side of the equilibrium are most other living organisms, or ‘breathing’ organisms, those breath-in oxygen and breath-out that oxygen after it had been combined with carbon from their bodies.

As well, humans have found faster ways to release that carbon back to the atmosphere, while making use of the energy- fire, or burn.

The consequences of breaking this equilibrium have been talked about enough… although understanding how slow the process of putting carbon in the soil (not faster than a growing plant) and how fast is the process of releasing it back to the air (as quick as that same plant burns) is critical!

When we realise how every bit of energy released from fuels on our planet is originally solar energy, stored in our environment in different ways (wood, coal, char, petroleum) and we look at how much energy is being used daily and how much is falling on earth in the shape of light, it is easy to see that this equilibrium is being broken…

Char, or charcoal, is organic matter, put in high temperature for a period of time, with no oxygen.

The triangle of fire (of which we wish to avoid) is: Fuel, Heat, Oxygen.

When we put those 3 together we get fire, for example: with some fuel like a forest / a piece of wood or a sheet of paper with enough heat from the sun or a lighter plus the oxygen that is available in the air, we get fires.

During the process of burning, carbon molecules (which are a main ingredient of which most fuel is made of) are combining with the oxygen in the air, creating CO/CO2 molecules which is a gas released to the air.

When we put a piece of wood in the fire any moisture is being heated, and released, the material is getting hotter and hotter, other gases and tars are being released (burned or not), the heat is breaking the woods’ structure, oxygen is combined with carbon (and released to the atmosphere as CO2) and some molecules are left as ashes (calcium, potassium, phosphate, and many more…)

Making char is a very similar process, the only difference is that excluding oxygen from the process means that the carbon is staying with the woods’ structure (as it can’t combine with oxygen). We still burn the tars and other gases – so we still have a fire, only that we’re not releasing the carbon! We get energy while releasing much less carbon into the atmosphere!

The molecular structure of char is one of a vast amount of surface area, it can hold as much as four times its weight in water, it can keep large amounts of oxygen in it and it can be a more stable carbon than humus – it will last longer in the soil, the result of that is a fast, low cost, long term structure for holding moisture, minerals, and microorganisms. All are key for building soil.

There are many ways to make char, using TLUD- top lit up draft burners, retorts of many sorts and more, I’ll focus on one way which is somewhat different.

For a while, we have been making biochar using TLUDs and Retorts, experimenting with different fuels, and techniques. Sense we have a lot of large size or odd shape prunings (coming to us in large quantities from feeding the urban garden rabbits with Tagasaste branches and from our forest gardens) I’ve been looking for a simple, low tech, versatile and time/ energy efficient way to char those. I looked a bit into traditional charcoal making in a pit – that seemed like an amazing way to make char, though is very skilled (of which I have no experience with yet) and at second look seems somewhat polluting, as much of the tars/ gases are left un burned, as well the temperatures are usually low which results in low quality char. While researching I have found the work of ‘Ithaka Institute’ in Switzerland – http://www.ithaka-institut.org/en/home, Hans-Peter Schmidt, has done some amazing research, and put together the kiln he is calling ‘Kon-Tiki’- simple, easy to build, can make all sorts of gnarly wood into char without processing, is clean burning, easy to operate and makes high quality char, seemed to be exactly what i was looking for! So quickly found a way to make one and try it!

Biochar

The main idea is to burn wood in the kiln in a way that makes the fire protect the char from oxygen.

When we burn wood in an open fire we can observe how as we add wood, first the fire is burning on top and above the wood – burning the tars and gases, only after those are consumed the heat and the oxygen increase around the wood and carbon is being released as CO2, at that point we can observe white patches (ash) starting to appear on the wood.

If burning wood in the kon-tiki we add layer after layer of wood, each layer we put in the heat releases its gases (which are being burned in the fire and releasing more heat) at the point that the wood is starting to ash, we add another layer of wood, the top layer is now in the heat, releasing its gases and consuming the oxygen above the top layer – protecting the previous layer from oxygen – keeping the char intact.

As we add more and more layers, the structure breaks, and the char takes less and less space, until the whole cone is filled with char and there is no more space to add wood on top of the fire, we stop the process with purring water into the kiln (or from a bottom attachment which allows us to start filling the kiln with water while still burning at the top and create more even char while releasing less pollutants at the end) the bigger the kiln the bigger the amount of char per batch.

In the first burn it took us 3 hrs – from starting to collect the wood bringing it next to the kiln, to having 300 Litters (volume) of char. If you tried making char before you’ll know that this is very good for any back yard operation.

We can add to the kiln thin or thick pieces of wood (as long as similar within each layer), we can up-scale or down-scale the size of the kiln to our need, and it is made out of materials that will last for years.

The next stage is to put it on big wheels, attach a long handle, and we will be able to take it to a walk around the village, and make char where its needed, or where the fuel is being piled. Add a rim around the kiln so that the air being burned in the kiln is pre-heated by the outside of the kiln – which will result in hotter cleaner burn and better char, and a way to heat large amounts of water using the heat releaset at the top.

If you are making your own just make sure that the walls are in 65 degrees from the ground and the opening at the top is at least 1 meter wide.

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Warning! – do not add the raw char to your garden!
It will take time and minerals until the char is saturated and makes the minerals available to your plants.

To charge and inoculate your char add it to your compost piles, put it into your composting toilets, add it to your worm farms or black soldier flies farms, soak it in urine, or don’t charge it, and use it as a water filter, as an insulation material, as animal supplement, or many more…

Biochar4.1– Written by Shaked From

Interested in learning more?

We invite you to come to our Appropriate Technology Internship beginning 29th February 2016. This is a super exciting, leading edge  and empowering Internship!

Learn  to design a low cost, local, low tech, passive solar home, and all the things that make a home autonomous. This course will teach how to make it stand-alone and be regenerative too. You will have the opportunity to get fully involved in building these appropriate technologies.

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Selecting Psyllid Resistant Plants

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Now is the time to select your most disease/psyllid resistant tomatoes seed and potato seed for next season. The first step is to identify the psyllid damage on your plants, these photo’s will help you see the affects psyllids have on plant growth. Click on the photo’s to view them close up and see more details.

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Here in the Hawke’s Bay where we have our seed gardens, it is a very strong psyllid area. This means that in a bad year, hot and dry, just the conditions we have now, the psyllid will be there in force. We use only Koanga Psyllid Solution to keep them away as much as possible, it’s very obvious to us that some cultivars are far more resistant than others. Our Psyllid solution is a very specially selected and very finely ground, water soluble version of diatamaceous earth, and is applied as a foliar spray. It contains 85% silicon dioxide in the form of dispersible powder. The commonly available product sold as diatomaceous earth will not work. When we walk around our tomato grow-out and our potato grow-out it stands out very strongly that some cultivars do not have any sign of psyllid and others are significantly effected.

Psyllid_Images

If you would like to select your own seed from the most resistant plants you have then go out now and pick a tomato or two or a potato or two and keep the seed for next year. We have other criteria as well, but selecting for psyllid resistance is a really great selection criteria for all of us. We’ll publish a detailed information sheet showing you our results in around a month….to help you with selecting resistant cultivars next season.

ELDERFLOWER CORDIAL

Our elderflower cordial bottled and ready for the holiday season!

Our elderflower cordial bottled and ready for the holiday season!

Now is the time to be collecting Elderflower. The Elder tree is an important and revered tree in most European countries. It is known as the Queen of the forest, and has many beneficial medicinal properties. You can dry the flowers for use over winter as a tea to help ward off respiratory illnesses and reduce fevers, or you can make a lovely cordial from the delicate fresh sprays. We add it to sparkling water and lemon for a refreshing drink.

For a great Christmas Day cocktail, add a dash of Elderflower cordial, top up with equal parts of sparkling wine and sparkling water and garnish with a sprig of Mint and a Calendula flower (or any other edible flower you have growing in your garden).

Collect the flowers on a sunny day, in the mid afternoon if you can… wet flowers will end in disappointment. Treat them with care. Try to collect blooms that have just flowered.

Always make sure you are certain of the plant if you are collecting from the wild.

ELDERFLOWER CORDIAL

20 – 25 Elderflower sprays

2 Lemons (rind and juice)

2 Oranges (rind and juice)

250ml light honey

2 L Water

Put flowers, rind, juice and honey into a pot.

Cover with boiling water and let steep for 24 hours. Make sure flowers are submerged or they can turn brown and affect the taste.

Put into sterilised bottles and store in the fridge.

Enjoy!

Meet our new Urban Garden apprentice, Fiona!

Fiona watering the urban Garden

Fiona watering the urban Garden

It’s a busy time here at Koanga Institute and particularly in the Urban Garden. Otis, my two year old son, and I have arrived from the Northern Territory of Australia to begin our learning in the management of a small Urban Plot. It’s been exciting, hectic and the brisk spring weather providing some climatisation challenges!

The winter crops have finished and it was awesome to see the Clementine Mandarin and the Meyer Lemon pumping out a whopping 100kg each of fruit over that time. Other points of interest from the winter produce were a regular supply of soup greens, silver beet, salad greens, leeks and a continual supply of kale. The last of the kale was picked from the stem and dried in the solar drier to use in summer soups and stews.

On the animal front in the Urban Garden, the rabbit doe gave us a beautiful litter of 5 charming kits who are growing up fast, last week they were weaned and she’ll be ready for another run with the buck in the next month. The guinea pigs all produced litters, recently weaned also and the boar has been put back with the older females to begin the cycle again.

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The shy new mothers and their pups

 

The garden supplies us with enough comfrey for food for the chickens twice a day. They love the flowers and the protein provided in the leaves ensures that the chickens continue to produce amazing quality eggs. Otis also loves foraging for snails for an extra fowl treat too!!

Look at how bright red the combs on this chook is! She is getting plenty of calcium and minerals from the comfrey I give them.

Look at how bright red the combs on this chook is! She is getting plenty of calcium and minerals from the comfrey I give them.

Over the last few weeks all the beds have been prepared and the summer produce has been planted. The wicking beds are loaded with early season tomatoes, courgettes, egg plant and peppers. Fruit has set on the tomatoes and we’re expecting them to be ready for Christmas. Wicking beds have been such a valuable addition to the Urban Garden Plot and its well worth looking into doing if you have a small yard which is paved or decked. Here is a small sketch of how the wicking beds work.

Curtosey of Koanga Institute

Courtesy of Koanga Institute

Our wicking bed plants are growing very quickly!

Our wicking bed plants are growing very quickly!

 

Forest Garden Update

Spring harvest

Spring harvest

Three years on and my garden beginning to come alive!! A year ago the insects moved in big time, now the birds are moving in, I guess there is enough habitat for them to set up safe homes and plenty of food to boot (insects).

My forest garden has been a lot of joy this spring with the support species making their presence stronger and stronger each year.

  1. The tagasaste are the first in midwinter to open their blossoms and put out an incredible scent for months, this year bringing in the bellbirds and the tui for the first time. They are always full of bees and insects, and the bumblebees early every morning and late into the evening every day.
  2. Next to bloom were the eleagnus flowers, far out! They are such a joy every spring, with their heady, rich pervasive scent which also brings in the insects and life.
  3. Next came the Siberian pea trees, slower growing but with dainty feathery leaves and stunning bright yellow pea-like flowers followed by small tiny pods hanging like kowhai pods do in large bunches.
  4. They are followed by the Tree Medick, which flowered here for the first time this spring. If I thought the others were amazing this capped them all. The Tree Medick scent is super pervasive, and has been around us now for weeks. The colour is a vibrant yellow, and the bushes are smothered in flowers for weeks. They are just now turning into pods, and their job of attracting insects and bring in life has been overtaken by the incredible tree lupins, who form these great mounds of yellow flowers where the chickens love to hide, and rest and also scratch.
  5. The spring symphony of legumes is so strong the fruiting bushes are quite forgotten.

Remember, our February catalogue will be full of Forest Garden/Orchard information including our new forest garden support tree seed list for the first time.

If you are going to be planting a forest garden next winter or begin turning your orchard into a forest garden then sign up for membership now and have access to the best deals we offer, as well as the latest information.

In the mean time, I suggest you get a copy of Design Your Own Orchard and the Koanga Design Your Own Forest Garden Booklet, to be ready to do an amazing job of your own forest garden.

Looking into my forest garden

Looking into my forest garden

Year 3 in Kay’s Forest Garden

This is a list of what we are working with so far, on our 900 sq m forest garden with chicken constantly underneath as one of the most important outputs (eggs and meat). I’m going to put this up annually so we can see over time how this list changes. I imagine we will continue to diversify and add species as we find them, and some will prove to fit better than others.

Forest Garden Support Species

Nitrogen fixers

  1. Tree lupin (40) chook food
  2. Tree medick (2) chook food
  3. Lespedeza (4) chook food
  4. Eleagnus multiflora (2) human and chook food
  5. Eleagnus augustifolia (2) human and chook food
  6. Tagasaste (15) chicken food
  7. Viburnum (1)
  8. Alfalfa (chook food)
  9. Clover (chook food)
  10. Maakia amurensis (2)
  11. Seabuckthorn (2) human and chook food)
  12. Acacia retinoides (5) chook)
  13. Casurina (1)
  14. Kowhai (1)

Minerals accumulators

  1. Alfalfa
  2. Comfrey
  3. Cardoon (20)
  4. cornus spp ( Siberian dogwood, mas etc) (4) human/chook food berries

Fruiting Trees

Cherry x 2
Apricot x 1
Lemon x 1
Orange x 1
Mandarin x 2
Feijoa x 3
Fig x1
Chokeberry x 20
Arguta kiwi fruit x 5
Apple x 5
Damson x 1
Peach x 3
Nectarine x 1
Plum x 1
Prune x 2
Mulberry x 1

Sweet delicious rhubarb!

Sweet delicious rhubarb!

Perennial Vege

My perennial bed is also strongly producing now, we are picking globe artichokes every day along with asparagus and Welsh Bunching onions, Multiplying Spring onions, Seakale, which is delicious and Rhubarb. Next year we might have strong enough Giant Solomon’s Seal to be able to pick a little of that too. The perennial Runner beans are about to flower so the first green beans are not far off as well. (It is not too late to plant perennial runner beans)

A good time to begin thinking about your perennial garden is right now, as soon as you get your major spring plantings in. There is a new chapter in the new edition of the Koanga Garden Guide on perennials so get into that to do your planning and check out our perennials section where you can get your seeds and starts from.

 Vege Garden

My garden always suffers in spring because I’m always teaching the 10 week Spring Internship. This year Bob has had more time to help me and it is emerging again now as a pretty amazing summer garden. I bit the bullet this season and invested in some professional quality cloches, and that has already paid off. My potatoes are well up and flowering and still covered by hoops and frost cloth. My tomatoes, peppers, eggplants and pumpkins have all been started under cloches. The cloches are still over them and will be until all danger of frost is past, which for us is early December!!! It is quite a lot of daily work opening and shutting them…but in such a short growing season the rewards will be a far larger harvest of otherwise marginal crops.

We’re eating our rocombole garlic flowers now, rocombole garlic is worth planting because of that alone, but also has the advantage of being ready to harvest a month before soft top garlic. Order now to ensure you get your seed in autumn.

The big decision I’ve made this month is to use our Koanga Balance to protect my tomatoes and potatoes against psyllid and blight this year. It’s always a big decision and in the past few years I’ve used Koanga Psyllid Solution as we do in the Koanga Seed gardens. Koanga Psyllid solution is the best solution I knew of until Grant at Environmental Fertilisers explained to me that Koanga Balance is a 100% biological product made up entirely of microbes and fungi should do the same job! There is no worry about killing bees and other insects as with diatomaceous earth in psyllid solution, which is possible. Koanga Balance is a leading edge biological product that is being used in the kiwi fruit industry against psyllid. If it works there so I see no reason why it can’t work for home gardeners on potatoes and tomatoes. I’m giving it a go this year! And we’ll continue with Psyllid solution in the Koanga Seed garden until we see how this works, and compare the results.

Spring Greens Salad Recipe

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It’s quite possible that your pumpkin stash has come to an end and you’re ready for some fresh salads as we come into spring (it’s almost here)! This is a simple recipe to maximise what you have both in and around your garden so you can create some delicious, fresh and very pretty salads! Edible flowers are the perfect garnish!
Go for a walk around and see what you have, it’s probably a mix of the following:
Winter lettuce
spinach
multiplying spring onions
French sorrell
mustard lettuce
cornsalad
rocket
mizuna
endive
cabbage
kale (baby leaves)
chives
cilantro
Dalmatian parsley
beetroot tops
dandelion leaves and flowers
We even spotted some violet under a tree and both the leaves and flowers make a great addition.
For the salad pictured we added grated beetroot and lightly toasted pumpkin seeds, yum!
Toss your collection with a vinaigrette of your choice. A super basic and always tasty option is to mix equal portions of apple cider vinegar and olive oil together in a jar, put the lid on and shake, then toss through your salad. See page 254 of Change of Heart for our favorites.

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http://www.koanga.org.nz/spring-greens-salad-recipe/

Perennials As Part of Building Garden Resilience

There are many ways to build garden resilience using annual crops: diversity in crop type, diversity in variety, diversity over time (repeat sowings of crops over the season to spread the risk) but adding perennials into the mix of food plants adds an extra layer of resilience. Obviously perennials include food producing trees and shrubs which, once established, keep on producing year after year.

Here though I’m going to concentrate on perennial vegetables and what they have to offer. Because perennial forms of vegetables have an established root system then they are able to withstand adverse weather events (that are likely to be increasingly more common as a result of climate change) and also predation by pest species better than annuals and also often start producing earlier in the year or spread their production more evenly over the year. Obviously the time and length of harvest depends on the type of perennial. Sea kale for example is a leafy perennial brassica and its shoots and leaves can be harvested over a long period from spring onwards, Jerusalem Artichoke on the other hand is a plant which forms tubers underground and these can only be harvested in the winter. They do last over the winter however and can be left in the ground and gradually harvested if your garden is not too wet or can all be harvested and stored in damp (non treated) sawdust and then eaten over a period of several months.

Koanga Institute holds a number of perennial vegetables which we make available either as seed (for example Sea Kale or Globe Artichoke) or through our Perennial Back Order System. Plants sold under the perennial back order system are sold as plant material (not seed) at the appropriate time of year for that plant. http://www.koanga.org.nz/perennials-as-part-of-building-garden-resilience/The collection includes many diverse items such as perennial onions and leeks, garlics (which although are cultivated on an annual basis are really perennial), strawberries, potatoes (again which are grown on an annual basis), kumara and a variety of tubers and other plants.

The category of plants sent out around this time of year is particularly diverse and includes plants we have offered for several years such as Yacon (Polymnia sonchifolia), Jerusalem Artichokes (Helianthus tuberosa), Yams (Oxalis tuberosa), Chinese Water Chestnuts (Eleocharis dulcis), and Chinese Artichokes (Stachys affinis), as well as Alpine Strawberries (Fragaria vesca) and Solomon’s Seal (Polygonatum commutatum) which are relatively new additions to the collection. As well as the food producing perennials we also have some perennial support plants in the collection such as Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) (both regular comfrey and a new addition Evergreen Comfrey) and some flowering plants such as Dahlias and Gladioli that add to the general diversity of the garden or orchard and, in the case of Dahlias, are absolute magnets for bees.

IMPORTANT NOTE

The demand for plants in all categories of our perennial back order section is high and sadly many items in the current category are sold out. The good news though is that we do still have Jerusalem Artichokes, Dalmatian Artichokes, Red Skinned Artichokes and Chinese Water Chestnuts available this year and will have the rest of the items available again next year. Once the send of these plants has fully finished for 2015 we will re-list the whole category around November and will start accepting orders for 2016.

Adding Clay To Our Soil

Clay_Roots2

SO… we added clay to our beds last autumn, and we grew oats in those beds over winter, and now in mid August we had to remove the oats to put in an early seed crop. We tested the brix of those oats. Their brix was 22 and those around them 19. When we pulled them up there was a very obvious difference to the look of the roots which are very clearly looking for clay to get into!!!!!… a continuing journey to remineralise and create /regenerate our soil to grow high quality food and seeds!

We have light pumice soils so the idea of the clay is to increase the cation exchange capacity to speed up the process of building soil. You can see there are more exudates (sugars) coming out of the plants which why the clay and soil is sticking to the roots.

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Two People Living Off A 200sqm Garden – Plan Included!

Kay’s 200 sq m Garden Plan Created Using the Koanga Garden Planner For Self Reliance in Annual vegetables, seeds and grains

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Introduction

Bob and I have just finished 12 months of eating only our own food, not buying anything from the supermarket at all except for salt (from health supplier) and a handful of organic imported spices.  It was actually fairly easy and we have no intention of changing back to the supermarket, only going forward from here.

We have been on this site for 3 years and the soil was very poor pumice based soil to begin with.

We have built it up using fertiliser based on the work of Dr Carey Reams  and lots of our own amazing compost, as well as recently added clay!.(to increase the cation exchange capacity, and speed up the process of soil building )

We combine Biointensive methods with Biological Agriculture and achieve outstanding results. See Kay’s garden blog for more details.

This year we are going to keep a careful track of everything that goes in and out of this garden, including the brix levels,  and publish that in my monthly garden blogs. We’re still learning a lot from our garden, and loving every minute in it…

14.02.08 065

100% of vegetables grains and seeds (eating a Weston Price Diet)

This is a serious attempt to design a garden that supplies all of our  (Bob and myself) annual vegetables, grains, and seeds, including enough for fermenting  and  storing so that we have a diverse range of high brix food year round, in a space that feels possible for us to garden intensively.

Flaxseed - Grown for food as well as a carbon crop

Flaxseed – Grown for food as well as a carbon crop

 

Seed Saving

It is designed so that  we can save our own seed of almost everything… some things are hard to do in small gardens and seed saving requires co operation amongst neighbours, which we do for those crops… eg brassicas, and some require hand pollination to keep the seed,  eg pumpkins, (alternatively cultivars could be seriously restricted for ourselves and neighbours,  however we choose to have the diversity which feels like luxury and means less likelihood of feeling like diving off to the shop for some ‘junk food’. For people wanting to learn to grow their own food seriously and save seeds in case of economic collapse, this is a real model for self reliance.

Carbon Efficient Crops to Supply All of our Compost needs for high production and Soil Building

The garden is designed so that half of the garden each season is in carbon efficient crops, so that we know we have enough high quality carbon to make enough compost, so that we have 2cm of compost to apply to every bed each time it is planted, which is the optimal amount to be growing soil and producing heavy quality crops.

Crop Rotation

The garden is also designed so that there is a rotation from heavy feeders to roots and legumes to carbon, then carbon again.

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Carbon Crops sown in the Autumn: Front right garden bed: Oats and Peas Front left garden bed: lupins

 

Chicken Food

This garden design also includes 40 sq m of Flour Corn. We grow Bloody Butcher because of the super high levels of  high lignon carbon it produces, and also the weight of corn seed. We mostly use this to sprout and feed to our chickens.  Two years ago when the soil was far less mineralized than it is now we produced 1 kg of dry seed per sq m of bed. I believe we can at least double that if not 3x that weight. http://www.koanga.org.nz/two-people-living-off-a-200sqm-garden-plan-included/If we can do that we should be able to produce all the grain needed to feed our chickens, at a rate of   30 gms a day of dry corn which we sprout to become 70 gms per day of sprouted corn. We have the chickens in a forest garden also designed to produce a lot  of chicken food, as well as serious soldier fly farms.

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Food to Give Away

As our  soil gets better and better our beds are producing heavier crops and at this size garden we are sure we’ll have a lot f vegetables in season to give away to family and friends and neighbors

Income

This garden has some built in income streams. I will be saving several seed lines to sell to Koanga tomatoes, peppers and eggplants, corn and carrots, as well as 20 sq m to plant into winter vege to supply Koanga with veges for the Spring PDC

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Perennial Vegetables

As well as this 200 sq m annual vege garden we have 50 sq m of perennial vegetables including  8m of  Purple asparagus, 5m of Purple Globe Artichokes, 4m of Seakale, 1m of Welsh Bunching onions and  2m of Rhubarb.

 Asparagus_Sweet_Purple

Koanga Garden Planner

This style of crop rotation and planning is explained in detail in the Koanga Garden Planner. This is a must have if you want to get serious about your home garden!

Garden_Planner_Info

View The Garden Plan!

Screen shot 2015-08-06 at 11.10.56 AM

If the idea of growing all your own food sounds exciting you should definitely consider attending one of our upcoming courses.

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